I read every book that I index from cover to cover—at least TWICE. First, I read the pdf of the book on my iPad, marking it up in preparation for indexing. I read the book for the second time as I write the index. The book is then reviewed as necessary during the editing portion of the indexing process.
My indexing process is paper-free.
I use five software programs to produce one quality index. Thirty-five years ago indexers used only index cards and an electric typewriter. I don’t know how they managed.
You can find out more about my indexing business and my rates here.